The immune system is made up of specific cells, proteins, tissues and organs that protect people from germs and microorganisms every day .In most cases, the immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. But sometimes immune system problems can lead to illness and infection.
About the immune system
The immune system is the body’s defense against infectious organisms and other invaders. The immune system attacks organisms and substances through a series of steps called the immune response that attack the body’s systems and cause disease.
The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. One of the important cells involved is white blood cells, also called white blood cells (leukocytes), which are in two basic types that combine to search for and eliminate disease-causing organisms or substances.
White blood cells are produced or stored in many parts of the body, including the thymus (the gland in the body of any human being considered an immune system), the spleen, and the bone marrow. That’s why they are called lymph nodes. There are also a large number of lymphoid tissues (this tissue is associated with the lymphatic system and is involved in immune functions and protects the body against infections) as lymph nodes in the body that primarily accommodate white blood cells. have given.
White blood cells circulate through the lymph vessels and blood vessels through the body between organs and glands. In this way, the immune system acts in concert to control the germs or substances that may cause problems.
Two basic types of white blood cells (leukocytes) are:
- Phagocytes: Aliens or magnifying glass are cells that form part of the immune system. These cells have the ability to exterminate, meaning they can devour and then digest and destroy pathogens or other alien cells and molecules, as well as worn out cellular components. Aliens have a key role in infections and the body’s inflammatory response.
- Lymphocytes, cells that enable the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them.
A number of different cells are phagocytes. The most common of these is neutrophils, which primarily fight bacteria. Other types of phagocytes have their own tasks to make sure the body responds properly to a particular type of invader.
The two types of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow and pass to the thymus.
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have separate functions: B lymphocytes, like the body’s military intelligence system, are pursuing their goals. T cells are like soldiers and kill the invaders who identify the information system.
How the immune system works:
When antigens (foreign substances that invade the body) are detected, several types of cells work together to identify and respond to them. These cells produce B lymphocytes to produce antibodies. Antibodies or antibodies are specific proteins that lock on to specific antigens.
After production, these antibodies remain in the body, so that if the body’s immune system attacks the antigen again, the existing antibodies will attack and harm them. So if someone gets a specific illness like chickenpox, that person usually doesn’t get chickenpox.
Although antibodies can detect and lock an antigen, they cannot destroy it without the help of T lymphocytes. Some T cells are actually called “killer cells”. T cells also play a role in helping to signal to other cells (such as phagocytes).
Antibodies can also neutralize the toxins (toxic or damaging substances) present in different organisms. Finally, antibodies can activate a group of proteins called supplements that are also part of the immune system. The supplement helps kill bacteria, viruses or infected cells.
All of these specialized cells and parts of the immune system protect the body against diseases. This is actually called body protection.
Everyone’s immune system is different. Some people appear to never get the infection, while others appear to be always ill. As people get older, more and more immune systems come in contact with the germs, usually avoiding more germs. That’s why adults and teens are less likely to have a cold than children. Their bodies have learned to recognize many viruses that cause the cold and attack them immediately.
Immune system problems
- Immune system disorders fall into four main categories:Immune Deficiency Disorders (Primary or Acquired)
- Autoimmune Disorders (where the immune system invades its tissue as an external substance)
- Allergic disorders (which the immune system responds to in response to antigens)
- Immune system cancers
Immune Deficiency Disorders
Immune deficiency occurs when part of the immune system is completely lost or malfunctioning. Some people are born with immunodeficiency (known as primary immunodeficiency) and the symptoms may not appear until later in life. Immunodeficiency can also be caused by infection or by medications (sometimes called secondary immunodeficiency).
Immune deficiency can affect B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes or phagocytes. Examples of primary immunodeficiency that can affect children and adolescents include:
Severe SCID Combined Immune Deficiency: A serious immune system disorder that is caused by a deficiency of B and T lymphocytes, making it nearly impossible to fight infections.
DiGeorge syndrome (thyroid dysplasia) is a birth defect in which babies are born without a thymus. The thymus is where T lymphocytes mature normally.
Chadiac-Higashi syndrome and chronic CGD granulomatous disease both involve neutrophils’ failure to function normally as phagocytes.
Acquired (or secondary) immunodeficiency: It usually develops after the illness, although it can also be the result of malnutrition, burns or other medical problems. Certain medications can also cause immune function problems.
Acquired (secondary) immunodeficiency includes:
HIV / AIDS: It is a condition that destroys the immune system slowly and consistently. It kills certain types of lymphocytes called T-helper cells. Without T-helper cells, the immune system is unable to defend the body against organisms that can infect people with AIDS and cause dangerous infections. Infants can get HIV infection from their mothers in the womb, during childbirth or during lactation. People can become infected with HIV by having unprotected sex with an infected person or sharing needles infected with drugs, steroids or tattoos.
Medication-induced immune deficiency: Some drugs suppress the immune system. For example, one of the drawbacks of chemotherapy for cancer is that it not only attacks cancer cells but also attacks rapidly growing healthy cells, including cells in the bone marrow and other parts of the immune system.
In addition, people with autoimmune disorders or those with transplanted organs may need to take immunosuppressive drugs, which can both reduce the immune system’s ability to fight infections and can Cause secondary immunodeficiency.
- Autoimmune disorders
In autoimmune disorders, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy body tissues.
Autoimmune diseases include:
Lupus: It is a chronic autoimmune disease that can affect many organs, including the skin, joints, blood, kidneys and the central nervous system. “Chronic” means that the disease can persist for a long time. By “autoimmunity,” there is an immune system disorder in which the immune system attacks the patient’s own tissues rather than protecting the body against viruses and germs.
Adolescent Idiopathic Arthritis: A disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks certain parts of the body (such as the knee joint, limbs) that recognize it as foreign tissue. Idiopathic arthritis is a type of autoimmune disorder. Naturally, the immune system reacts against foreign and foreign substances including bacteria and viruses. In idiopathic arthritis, the immune system invades healthy cells and tissues. The result is an inflammation that manifests itself in redness, heat, pain and swelling.
Scleroderma: It is a chronic autoimmune disease that can lead to inflammation and damage to the skin, joints and internal organs.
Ankylosan spondylitis: Disease, which involves inflammation of the spine and joints, causing stiffness and pain.
Young dermatomyositis: It is a disorder that is associated with inflammation and damage to the skin and muscles.
- Allergic disorders: Allergic disorders occur when the immune system is exposed to excessive antigens in the environment. The substances that cause such attacks are called allergens. The immune response can cause symptoms such as swelling, runny eyes and sneezing, and even a death-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis. Antihistamines can relieve most of these symptoms.
Allergic disorders include:
Asthma: A respiratory disorder that can cause respiratory problems, often involving an allergic reaction by the lungs. If the lungs are too sensitive to certain allergies (such as pollen, mildew or fungi, animal hair filaments, and dust), the respiratory tract may become narrow and swollen, making breathing difficult.
Eczema: Also known as atopic dermatitis. Although not necessarily caused by an allergic reaction, eczema often occurs in children and adolescents with allergies, hay fever or asthma.
Allergies: Different allergies can affect children and adolescents. Environmental allergies (such as dust), seasonal allergies (such as hay fever), drug allergies (reaction to specific drugs), food allergies (such as nuts) and allergies to pesticides (bee stings) are the most common conditions that people usually experience. They get into it.
- Immune system cancers
Cancer occurs when cells get out of control. It can also include immune cells. Leukemia or leukemia, which involves abnormal white blood cell growth.
Lymphatic cancer: It affects the lymphatic tissue and is also one of the most common childhood cancers. With current treatments, most cases of both cancers are treatable in children and adolescents.
Although immune disorders are not usually prevented, knowing your condition and working closely with your doctor can help strengthen your immune system and fight diseases.
To boost the immune system, you can use natural remedies that are processed into syrup or capsules that contain a variety of vitamins that are beneficial to the body. These supplements include Multi vitrex Syrup, manufactured by Parsis Raya Darou.
This supplement is produced in two models for children and adults.